Time-dependent closure of a fracture with rough surfaces subjected to stepwise normal stress was considered theoretically by viscoelastic modeling of rock. A formula for the relationship between constant normal stress and time-dependent closure as a function of time was derived based on the aperture distributions of a fracture and the relaxation modulus YE'(t) of rock. Theoretical consideration showed that the ultimate closure of a fracture under constant normal stress can be estimated from the normal stress-elastic closure curve by using the values of the relaxation modulus at t = 0 and ∞, and that the ultimate time-dependent closure is independent of the normal stress if the elastic closure is linear with the logarithm of the normal stress. Experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation on time-dependent closure under constant normal stress were conducted for a hydraulic fracture created in granite in the laboratory to provide the verification of the theory. The results obtained in the experiments showed that the ultimate time-dependent closure of a hydraulic fracture was almost independent of the normal stress when the elastic closure was linear with the logarithm of the normal stress. A Monte Carlo simulation on time-dependent closure of a fracture under constant normal stress showed that time-dependent closure of a fracture for which the elastic closure is linear with the logarithm of the normal stress does not depend on the normal stress because the increase in contact area during time-dependent closure increases with the normal stress.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2001 Jan 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology