Since March 11 2011, the national government of Japan has invested significant resources to aid recovery in the Tohoku region, devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and tsunami. Thus far, 25 trillion yen (approximately US$ 250 billion) has been committed, a 10-year national Reconstruction Agency has been established to guide the process, and many planning policies and rebuilding programs have been developed and implemented. During this time, four Prefectures and 81 local governments have also crafted recovery plans, and identified national rebuilding programs for use in implementing their plans. The first sites for permanent relocated settlements have been completed, and some residents have already moved into permanent disaster recovery public housing. At the same time, approximately 267,000 people are still displaced and living in temporary housing as of March 2014. This chapter provides an overview of policies and programs for rebuilding from the GEJE that have a strong emphasis on reducing risk for future tsunamis, along with the awareness of the need for both physical and non-physical aspects of disaster mitigation. Focus is given to describing policies and programs for land use, temporary housing and the current conditions of disaster survivors in regaining stability in their lives. Also, the progress of program implementation and livelihood rebuilding in communities is clarified, to explain the unprecedented challenges and emerging opportunities that affected localities and communities are experiencing due to the unique nature of the tsunami impacts.