Three-dimensional tracking of quantum dot-conjugated molecules in living cells

Lucia Gardini, Martino Calamai, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Makoto Kanzaki, Marco Capitanio, Francesco Saverio Pavone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)


Here, we describe protocols for three-dimensional tracking of single quantum dot-conjugated molecules with nanometer accuracy in living cells using conventional fluorescence microscopy. The technique exploits out-of-focus images of single emitters combined with an automated pattern-recognition open-source software that fits the images with proper model functions to extract the emitter coordinates. We describe protocols for targeting quantum dots to both membrane components and cytosolic proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • Cytosolic proteins
  • Lipids
  • Living cells
  • Out-of-focus imaging
  • Plasma membrane proteins
  • Quantum dots
  • Single-molecule localization
  • Three-dimensional tracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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