Three-dimensional multiphase mathematical modeling of the blast furnace based on the multifluid model

Jose Adilson De Castro, Hiroshi Nogami, Jun Ichiro Yagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


The blast furnace process is a multi-phase chemical reactor whose main purpose is to reduce iron oxides producing hot metal. In the actual blast furnace operation several phases simultaneously interact with one another exchanging momentum, mass and energy. In this paper a three-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of the blast furnace is presented. This model treats the blast furnace process as a multiphase reactor in which all phases behave like fluids. Five phases are treated by this model, namely, gas, lump solids (iron ore, sinter, pellets and coke), pig iron, molten slag and pulverized coal. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species for all phases are solved based on the finite volume method. In the discretized momentum equations, the covariant velocity projections are used, which is expected to give the best coupling between the velocity and pressure fields and improve the convergence of the calculations. This is a new feature of the present model regarding to the numerical procedures applied to the blast furnace modeling, which emphasizes its originality. In addition, gas and solid phases are treated as continuous phases possessing a pressure field and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to extract the pressure field and ensure mass conservation. Hot metal, slag and pulverized coal are treated as discontinuous phases consisting of unconnected droplets. For such phases, momentum conservation is used to calculate the fields of velocity while the continuity equations are used to calculate the phase volume fractions. This model was applied to predict the three-dimensional blast furnace operation and predicted temperature distributions and operational parameters like productivity, coke rate and slag rate presented close agreement with the actual measured ones in the blast furnace process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-52
Number of pages9
JournalIsij International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Blast furnace
  • Chemical reactions
  • Drag forces
  • Finite volume method
  • Heat transfer
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Multidimensional
  • Multiphase
  • Transport phenomena

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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