Thermodynamics on control of inclusions composition in ultra-clean steels

Hideaki Suito, Ryo Inoue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

287 Citations (Scopus)


The relations among the compositions of inclusion, steel and top slag were thermodynamically studied at 1 823 K in tire cord, valve spring, ultra low carbon sheet, bearing and sulfur free-machining steels. In case of a tire cord and valve spring steels, the equilibrium among inclusion, steel and top slag was found to be established in practice with respect to Si and Mn. The contents of Si, O and Ca in an ultra low carbon sheet steel were determined as a function of top slag composition, and the higher oxygen contents observed in practice were explained by the effect of FetO in slag. Thermodynamic discussion was made for the formation of spinel inclusions in a bearing steel and the precipitation of CaS in a sulfur free-machining steel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-536
Number of pages9
JournalIsij International
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Bearing
  • Deoxidation
  • Inclusion
  • Slag-metal
  • Steel
  • Sulfur free-machining
  • Tire cord
  • Ultra low carbon sheet
  • Valve spring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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