Thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria in the Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni-Au system

X. J. Liu, C. P. Wang, F. Gao, I. Ohnuma, K. Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Sn-Ag-Cu base solders are the most promising candidates to substitute for Sn-Pb eutectic solder. Gold (Au) coatings are used to protect conductor surfaces from oxidation and thereby to promote solderability, and Ni is often used as a diffusion barrier layer between lead-free solders and substrates to restrict the growth of intermetallic compound layers. In the present work, thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria in the Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni-Au system, which is of importance for developing lead-free solders, are carried out using the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. Substitutional solution and sublattice models are used to describe the solution and intermediate phases, respectively. Some examples of thermodynamic calculation are presented, and it is shown that the phase diagrams, liquidus projection, and thermodynamic properties can be predicted based on the present calculations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1429-1441
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Pb-free solder
  • Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni-Au system
  • Thermodynamic model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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