Rotation of the γ subunit of the F1-ATPase plays an essential role in energy transduction by F1-ATPase. Hydrolysis of an ATP molecule induces a 120 step rotation that consists of an 80 substep and 40 substep. ATP binding together with ADP release causes the first 80 step rotation. Thus, nucleotide binding is very important for rotation and energy transduction by F1-ATPase. In this study, we introduced a βY341W mutation as an optical probe for nucleotide binding to catalytic sites, and a βE190Q mutation that suppresses the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). Using a mutant monomeric βY341W subunit and a mutant α3β3γ subcomplex containing the βY341W mutation with or without an additional βE190Q mutation, we examined the binding of various NTPs (i.e., ATP, GTP, and ITP) and nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs, i.e., ADP, GDP, and IDP). The affinity (1/Kd) of the nucleotides for the isolated β subunit and third catalytic site in the subcomplex was in the order ATP/ADP > GTP/GDP > ITP/IDP. We performed van't Hoff analyses to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of nucleotide binding. For the isolated β subunit, NDPs and NTPs with the same base moiety exhibited similar ΔH0 and ΔG0 values at 25 C. The binding of nucleotides with different bases to the isolated β subunit resulted in different entropy changes. Interestingly, NDP binding to the α3β(Y341W)3γ subcomplex had similar Kd and ΔG0 values as binding to the isolated β(Y341W) subunit, but the contributions of the enthalpy term and the entropy term were very different. We discuss these results in terms of the change in the tightness of the subunit packing, which reduces the excluded volume between subunits and increases water entropy.
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