Molybdenum was arc melted with various amounts of scandium up to 0.5 wt.%, and the workability of the ingot and the bend ductility of the stress-relieved metal were studied. In contrast with other strong oxide formers, such as titanium and zirconium, scandium scavenges molybdenum by forming scandium oxide slag which rises to the surface of the molten metal. Consequently, molybdenum is refined by the addition of scandium, and this results in a marked improvement in its workability and ductility. The addition of an optimum amount of scandium (0.2 wt.%) results in a reduction in the working temperature of an ingot to about 673 K and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature to 163 K.
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