We evaluated the usefulness of a novel earphone-type infrared tympanic thermometer (IRT) during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Tympanic membrane temperature (T Tym) was monitored using the IRT inserted into the right ear canal of 12 adult patients (ASA III) who had been scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass under general anesthesia. Rectum (T Rec) and nasopharyngeal temperatures (T Naso) were also monitored, and all temperatures were recorded at 5-min intervals during cardiopulmonary bypass. Operating room temperature was kept at 20°-27°C; a conductive warming/cooling system was used to control the patient's body temperature. Of 265 measurements obtained, body temperature range was 31.6°-37.6°C. No complications were related to site of insertion of the monitoring probe. Significant correlations were seen between T Tym and T Naso (r = 0.971, P < 0.001), and T Tym and T Rec (r = 0.759, P < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot showed that average temperature of T Tym was 0.06°C above T Naso (±0.66°C, 2 SD) and 0.12°C below T Rec (±1.78°C, 2 SD). We conclude that an earphone-type IRT is noninvasive and hygienic and could continuously evaluate selective cerebral temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults.
- Cardiac surgery
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Infrared tympanic thermometer
- Nasopharyngeal temperature
- Tympanic membrane temperature
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine