The SWI/SNF chromatin regulator BRG1 modulates the transcriptional regulatory activity of the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase processivity factor BMRF1

Mei Tzu Su, Ya Ting Wang, Yen Ju Chen, Su Fang Lin, Ching Hwa Tsai, Mei Ru Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During the lytic phase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), binding of the transactivator Zta to the origin of lytic replication (oriLyt) and the BHLF1 transcript, forming a stable RNA-DNA hybrid, is required to initiate viral DNA replication. EBVencoded viral DNA replication proteins form complexes to amplify viral DNA. BMRF1, the viral DNA polymerase accessory factor, is essential for lytic DNA replication and also known as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of BHLF1 and BALF2 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]-binding protein). In order to determine systematically how BMRF1 regulates viral transcription, a BMRF1 knockout bacmid was generated to analyze viral gene expression using a viral DNA microarray. We found that a subset of Rta-responsive late genes, including BcLF1, BLLF1, BLLF2, and BDLF3, were downregulated in cells harboring a BMRF1 knockout EBV bacmid (p2089ΔBMRF1). In reporter assays, BMRF1 appears to transactivate a subset of viral late promoters through distinct pathways. BMRF1 activates the BDLF3 promoter in an SP1-dependent manner. Notably, BMRF1 associates with the transcriptional regulator BRG1 in EBV-reactivated cells. BMRF1-mediated transactivation activities on the BcLF1 and BLLF1 promoters were attenuated by knockdown of BRG1. In BRG1-depleted EBV-reactivated cells, BcLF1 and BLLF1 transcripts were reduced in number, resulting in reduced virion secretion. BMRF1 and BRG1 bound to the adjacent upstream regions of the BcLF1 and BLLF1 promoters, and depletion of BRG1 attenuated the recruitment of BMRF1 onto both promoters, suggesting that BRG1 is involved in BMRF1-mediated regulation of these two genes. Overall, we reveal a novel pathway by which BMRF1 can regulate viral promoters through interaction with BRG1.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere02114-16
JournalJournal of virology
Volume91
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1

Keywords

  • BMRF1
  • BRG1
  • Chromatin regulator
  • DNA polymerase accessory factor
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Transcriptional regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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