Bufonid anurans of the genus Atelopus contain both steroidal bufadienolides and various guanidinium alkaloids of the tetrodotoxin class. The former inhibit sodium-potassium ATPases, whereas the latter block voltage-dependent sodium channels. The structure of one guanidinium alkaloid, zetekitoxin AB, has remained a mystery for over 30 years. The structure of this alkaloid now has been investigated with a sample of ≈0.3 mg, purified from extracts obtained decades ago from the Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki. Detailed NMR and mass spectral analyses have provided the structure and relative stereochemistry of zetekitoxin AB and have revealed that it is an analog of saxitoxin. The proposed structure is characterized by richness of heteroatoms (C16H25N8O12S) and contains a unique 1,2-oxazolidine ring-fused lactam, a sulfate ester, and an N-hydroxycarbamate moiety. Zetekitoxin AB proved to be an extremely potent blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The IC50 values were 280 pM for human heart channels, 6.1 pM for rat brain IIa channels, and 65 pM for rat skeletal muscle channels, thus being roughly 580-, 160-, and 63-fold more potent at these channels than saxitoxin.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 2004 Mar 30|
ASJC Scopus subject areas