We have demonstrated that blocking CXCR4 may be a potent anti-metastatic therapy for CXCR4-related oral cancer. However, as CXCR4 antagonists are currently in clinical use to induce the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, continuous administration as an inhibitor for the metastasis may lead to persistent leukocytosis. In this study, we investigated the novel therapeutic downstream target(s) of the SDF-1/CXCR4 system, using B88-SDF-1 cells, which have an autocrine SDF-1/CXCR4 system and exhibit distant metastatic potential in vivo. Microarray analysis revealed that 418 genes were upregulated in B88-SDF-1 cells. We identified a gene that is highly upregulated in B88-SDF-1 cells, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), which was downregulated following treatment with 1,1' -[1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-1,4,8,11- tetraazacyclotetradecane octahydrochloride (AMD3100), a CXCR4 antagonist. The upregulation of mGluR5 mRNA in the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was predominately regulated by the Rasextracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway. Additionally, the growth of B88-SDF-1 cells was not affected by the mGluR5 agonist (S)-3,5-DHPG (DHPG) or the mGluR5 antagonists 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) and 3-((2-Methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP). However, we observed that DHPG promoted B88-SDF-1 cell migration, whereas both MPEP and MTEP inhibited B88-SDF-1 cell migration. To assess drug toxicity, the antagonists were intraperitoneally injected into immunocompetent mice for 4 weeks. Mice injected with MPEP (5 mg/kg) and MTEP (5 mg/kg) did not exhibit any side effects, such as hematotoxicity, allergic reactions or weight loss. The administration of antagonists significantly inhibited the metastasis of B88-SDF-1 cells to the lungs of nude mice. These results suggest that blocking mGluR5 with antagonists such as MPEP and MTEP could prevent metastasis in CXCR4-related oral cancer without causing side effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)