Invertebrate animals, which lack adaptive immune systems, have developed defense systems that respond to common antigens on the surface of potential pathogens. Hemolymph coagulation is one such defense system in innate immunity. The discovery of lipopolysaccharide-sensitive and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan-sensitive serine protease zymogens in horseshoe crab (limulus) hemocytes, both of which trigger the coagulation cascade, has exemplified how the animals detect and respond to foreign materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy