The proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 reduces the release of rhinovirus C and cytokines from primary cultures of human nasal epithelial cells

Mutsuo Yamaya, Xue Deng, Akiko Kikuchi, Mitsuru Sugawara, Natsumi Saito, Toru Kubo, Haruki Momma, Tetsuaki Kawase, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Yoshitaka Shimotai, Hidekazu Nishimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rhinovirus species C (RV-C) causes more severe asthma attacks than other rhinovirus species. However, the modulation of RV-C replication by drugs has not been well studied. Primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells cultured on filter membranes with air-liquid interface methods were infected with RV-C03, and the levels of RV-C03 RNA collected from the airway surface liquid (ASL) of HNE cells were measured with a SYBR Green assay. Pretreatment of HNE cells with the specific vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 reduced the RV-C03 RNA levels in the ASL; inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, in the supernatant; the mRNA expression of the RV-C receptor cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) in the cells; and the number of acidic endosomes where RV-B RNA enters the cytoplasm. The levels of RV-C03 RNA in the ASL obtained from HNE cells with the CDHR3 rs6967,330 G/A genotype tended to be higher than those obtained from HNE cells with the G/G genotype. Pretreatment with the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor ethyl-isopropyl amiloride or either of the macrolides clarithromycin or EM900 also reduced RV-C03 RNA levels in the ASL and the number of acidic endosomes in HNE cells. In addition, significant levels of RV-A16, RV-B14 and RV-C25 RNA were detected in the ASL, and bafilomycin A1 also decreased the RV-C25 RNA levels. These findings suggest that bafilomycin A1 may reduce the release of RV-Cs and inflammatory cytokines from human airway epithelial cells. RV-Cs may be sensitive to drugs, including bafilomycin A1, that increase endosomal pH, and CDHR3 may mediate virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis in human airway epithelial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number198548
JournalVirus Research
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct 15


  • Acidic endosome
  • Bafilomycin
  • Cadherin-related family member 3
  • Human airway epithelial cell
  • Human rhinovirus C

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Cancer Research


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