The most common form of DNA is a right-handed helix, the B-form DNA. DNA can also adopt a variety of alternative conformations, termed non-B-form DNA secondary structures, including the G-quadruplex (G4). Furthermore, non-canonical RNA G4 secondary structures are also observed. Recent bioinformatics analysis revealed genomic positions of G4. In addition, G4 formation may be associated with various biological functions, including DNA replication, transcription, epigenetic modification, and RNA metabolism. In this review, we focus on G4 structures in neuronal functions, which may have important roles reveal mechanisms underlying neurological disorders. In addition, we discuss the potential of G4s as a therapeutic target for neurological diseases.
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