The novel calmodulin (CaM) antagonist DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2- methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl) -1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate) with an apparent neuroprotective effect in vivo preferentially inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα), and calcineurin in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect with the gerbil transient forebrain ischemia model, by focusing on its inhibition of these Ca 2+/CaM-dependent enzymes. Post-ischemic DY-9760e treatment (5 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after 5-min ischemia significantly reduced the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. CaMKIIα was transiently autophosphorylated immediately after reperfusion with concomitant sustained decrease in its total amounts in the Triton X-100-soluble fractions. Calcineurin activity, accessed by the phosphorylation state of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32) at Thr34, was elevated at 6 h after reperfusion. Post-treatment of DY-9760e had no effects on both CaMKIIα and DARPP-32 phosphorylation at 6 h after reperfusion. However, DY-9760e significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation, as a biomarker of NO, and in turn, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) production. These results suggest that DY-9760e primarily inhibits Ca2+/CaM-dependent neuronal NOS, without any effects on CaMKII and calcineurin, and the inhibition of NO production possibly accounts for its neuroprotective action in brain ischemic injury.
- Ca/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)
- Cerebral ischemia
- Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32)
- Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine