Although phyAphyBphyC phytochrome-null mutants in rice (Oryza sativa) have morphological changes and exhibit internode elongation, even as seedlings, it is unknown how phytochromes contribute to the control of internode elongation. A gene for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO1), which is an ethylene biosynthesis gene contributing to internode elongation, was up-regulated in phyAphyBphyC seedlings. ACO1 expression was controlled mainly by phyA and phyB, and a histochemical analysis showed that ACO1 expression was localized to the basal parts of leaf sheaths of phyAphyBphyC seedlings, similar to mature wild-type plants at the heading stage, when internode elongation was greatly promoted. In addition, the transcription levels of several ethylene-or gibberellin (GA)-related genes were changed in phyAphyBphyC mutants, and measurement of the plant hormone levels indicated low ethylene production and bioactive GA levels in the phyAphyBphyC mutants. We demonstrate that ethylene induced internode elongation and ACO1 expression in phyAphyBphyC seedlings but not in the wild type and that the presence of bioactive GAs was necessary for these effects. These findings indicate that phytochromes contribute to multiple steps in the control of internode elongation, such as the expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsGA3ox2, ACO1 expression, and the onset of internode elongation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science