We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000-1500 km s-1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta-CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be yr-1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ 10-3M⊙yr-1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.
- supernovae: general
- supernovae: individual (SN2016bkv)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science