9-cis Retinoic acid (9cRA) is a promising lead compound to design the retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands with the ability to simultaneously activate RXR heterodimers with the selectivity to their nuclear receptor partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of 9cRA on the prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) and thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2) production. 9cRA increased the PGE 2 and TXA 2 productions in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All-trans retinoic acid, the retinoic acid receptor ligand, also increased their production. We revealed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was clearly induced by 9cRA in the presence of LPS. The induction was not suppressed by indomethacin, which completely inhibited the increase in the LPS-stimulated prostanoid production by 9cRA. The expression levels of the toll-like receptor 4 and CD14, which were components of the LPS receptor complex, were increased by 9cRA in the presence and absence of LPS. PGE synthase was also clearly increased by 9cRA in the presence and absence of LPS. In this study, we noted that 9cRA increased the production of PGE 2 and TXA 2 by the induction of COX-2 and PGE synthase in the presence of LPS. The induction of the LPS receptor complex by 9cRA is able to upregulate the induction of COX-2 by LPS.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators|
|Publication status||Published - 2004 Oct 1|
- 9-cis Retinoic acid
- Prostaglandin E synthase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology