We investigated whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a risk factor of stroke, affects the level of scavenger receptor CD36 and the uptake of its ligand, oxidized LDL (oxLDL); and whether pioglitazone, a drug that enhances CD36, promotes oxLDL uptake. Compared to normoglycemic db/+ mice, adult db/db mice showed a pronounced reduction in surface CD36 expression on myeloid cells from the blood, brain, and bone marrow as detected by flow cytometry, which correlated with elevated plasma soluble-CD36 as determined by ELISA. Increased CD36 expression was found in brain macrophages and microglia of both genotypes 7 days after ischemic stroke. In juvenile db/db mice, prior to obesity and hyperglycemia, only a mild reduction of surface CD36 was found in blood neutrophils, while all other myeloid cells showed no difference relative to the db/+ strain. In vivo, oral pioglitazone treatment for four weeks increased CD36 levels on myeloid cells in db/db mice. In vitro, uptake of oxLDL by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) of db/db mice was reduced relative to db/+ mice in normal glucose medium. OxLDL uptake inversely correlated with glucose levels in the medium in db/+ BMDMs. Furthermore, pioglitazone restored oxLDL uptake by BMDMs from db/db mice cultured in high glucose. Our data suggest that T2DM is associated with reduced CD36 on adult myeloid cells, and pioglitazone enhances CD36 expression in db/db cells. T2DM or high glucose reduces oxLDL uptake while pioglitazone enhances oxLDL uptake. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which pioglitazone may be beneficial in the treatment of insulin resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Neuroscience