The effect of dietary protein restriction in a case of molybdenum cofactor deficiency with MOCS1 mutation

Yu Abe, Yu Aihara, Wakaba Endo, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Mitsugu Uematsu, Shigeo Kure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that results from mutations in genes involved in molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis. MoCD is characterized clinically by intractable seizures and severe, rapidly progressing neurodegeneration leading to death in early childhood in the majority of known cases. We report on a patient with an unusual late disease onset and mild phenotype, characterized by delayed development and a decline triggered by a febrile illness and a subsequent dystonic movement disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensities of the bilateral basal ganglia. Blood and urine chemistry tests demonstrated remarkably low serum and urinary uric acid levels. A urine sulfite test was positive. Specific diagnostic workup showed elevated levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine in serum with increased urinary sulfocysteine (SSC) levels. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous missense mutation at c.1510C > T (p.504R > W) in exon 10 of the MOCS1 in isoform 7 (rs1387934803). At age 1 year 4 months, the patient was placed on a low protein diet to reduce cysteine load and accumulation of sulfite and SCC in tissues. At 3 months after introduction of protein restriction, the urine sulfite test became negative and the urine SCC level was decreased. After starting the protein restriction diet, dystonic movement improved, and the patient's course progressed without regression and seizures. Electroencephalogram findings were remarkably improved. This finding demonstrates that the dietary protein restriction suppresses disease progression in mild cases of MoCD and suggests the effectiveness of dietary therapy in MoCD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100716
JournalMolecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Volume26
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Dietary protein restriction
  • Electroencephalogram
  • MOCS1
  • Molybdenum cofactor (Moco)
  • Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD)
  • Sulfocysteine (SSC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology

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