A series of paddlewheel diruthenium(II, II) complexes with various chlorine-substituted benzoate ligands (Cl-series) was synthesized as tetrahydrofuran (THF) adducts [Ru2(ClxPhCO2)4(THF)2]; where ClxPhCO2- = o-chlorobenzoate, o-Cl; m-chlorobenzoate, m-Cl; p-chlorobenzoate, p-Cl; 2,3-dichlorobenzoate, 2,3-Cl2; 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, 2,4-Cl2; 2,5-dichlorobenzoate, 2,5-Cl2; 2,6-dichlorobenzoate, 2,6-Cl2; 3,4-dichlorobenzoate, 3,4-Cl2; 3,5-dichlorobenzoate, 3,5-Cl2; 2,3,4-trichlorobenzoate, 2,3,4-Cl3; 2,3,5-trichlorobenzoate, 2,3,5-Cl3; 2,4,5-trichlorobenzoate, 2,4,5-Cl3; 3,4,5-trichlorobenzoate, 3,4,5-Cl3; 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzoate, 2,3,4,5-Cl4. This Cl-series and the previously synthesized F-series together with four new fluorine-substituted derivatives, [Ru2(FxPhCO2)4(THF)2] (where FxPhCO2- = 2,3-difluorobenzoate, 2,3-F2; 2,4-difluorobenzoate, 2,4-F2; 2,5-difluorobenzoate, 2,5-F2; 2,3,5-trifluorobenzoate, 2,3,5-F3), were experimentally characterized with respect to solid-state structure, magnetic properties and electrochemistry. By tuning the substituents of the benzoate ligands using chlorine or fluorine atoms, the redox potential (E1/2) for [Ru2II,II]/[Ru2II,III]+ varied over a wide range of potentials from -40 mV to 360 mV (vs. Ag/Ag+ in THF). This was dependent on (i) the number of ortho-substituents, i.e. non-, mono- and di-o-substituted groups, with quasi-Hammett parameters for ortho-Cl and -F substitutions (σo = -0.272 and -0.217, respectively) and (ii) the general Hammett constants, σm and σp, for each group. The HOMO energy level calculated on the basis of the atomic coordinates of the solid-state structure was strongly affected by Cl- and F-substitutions as well as the redox potential in solution, which emphasizes the steric contribution of ortho-substituents in the energy level giving a deviation of EHOMO < 0.3 eV and <0.55 eV for the Cl- and F-series, respectively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Inorganic Chemistry