The aim of this study is to determine the effect of approach direction and pace on flight distance of beef breeding cows. Five Japanese Black breeding cows were used as experimental cattle. Three approach directions were tested; that were the approach toward the head of the test cow from the front direction (FRONT), the approach toward to the foreleg of the test cow from the right or left (SIDE) and the approach toward to hind-leg of the test cow diagonally from the right or left rear (BACK). Three levels of approach pace were also tested; that were the approach at a pace of 7 km/h, the approach at a pace of 4 km/h, and the approach at a pace of 1 km/h. The shortest distance between observer and cow's at the moment of the cow's withdrawal was defined as the flight distance. The flight distance in FRONT was significantly shorter than that in SIDE. The effect of the approach pace was significant. The faster an observer approached to cow, the greater the flight distance shown by the cow. The manner of approach to cattle markedly affects the flight distance. Therefore, the manner of approach to cattle must be standardized to measure flight distance for sharing results obtained by several researchers under various conditions.
- Approach direction
- Flight distance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)