The difference between electrical microstimulation and direct electrical stimulation - Towards new opportunities for innovative functional brain mapping?

Marion Vincent, Olivier Rossel, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, David Guiraud, François Bonnetblanc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Both electrical microstimulation (EMS) and direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain are used to perform functional brain mapping. EMS is applied to animal fundamental neuroscience experiments, whereas DES is performed in the operating theatre on neurosurgery patients. The objective of the present review was to shed new light on electrical stimulation techniques in brain mapping by comparing EMS and DES. There is much controversy as to whether the use of DES during wide-awake surgery is the 'gold standard' for studying the brain function. As part of this debate, it is sometimes wrongly assumed that EMS and DES induce similar effects in the nervous tissues and have comparable behavioural consequences. In fact, the respective stimulation parameters in EMS and DES are clearly different. More surprisingly, there is no solid biophysical rationale for setting the stimulation parameters in EMS and DES; this may be due to historical, methodological and technical constraints that have limited the experimental protocols and prompted the use of empirical methods. In contrast, the gap between EMS and DES highlights the potential for new experimental paradigms in electrical stimulation for functional brain mapping. In view of this gap and recent technical developments in stimulator design, it may now be time to move towards alternative, innovative protocols based on the functional stimulation of peripheral nerves (for which a more solid theoretical grounding exists).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-258
Number of pages28
JournalReviews in the Neurosciences
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • behaviour
  • direct electrical stimulation
  • electrical microstimulation
  • electrophysiology
  • functional brain mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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