We have previously demonstrated that detectable levels of prostaglandin E2 exist in periapical exudates (PE-PGE2) from root canals of periapical periodontitis. Our data from a cross-sectional study also suggested the association of PE-PGE2 concentrations with the active phase of periapical lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of PE-PGE2 levels during root canal treatment. Periapical exudate specimens were quantitatively sampled from root canals of 20 nonvital teeth at consecutive treatment visits to measure PGE2 concentrations. The mean PE-PGE2 levels significantly decreased following the endodontic therapy (158.0 ± 54.1 pg/μl in the first samples versus 48.4 ± 37.9 pg/μl in the second samples). A significant correlation was also found between the changes in PE-PGE2 levels and the clinical disease expression of periapical periodontitis (p < 0.01). Decreased PGE2 production is considered to reflect the remission of disease activity. These results suggest the central roles of PGE2 in regulatory mechanisms for the expression of periapical disease.
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