Temporal and spatial variations of the midlatitude ionospheric trough during a geomagnetic storm on 4 April 2017 have been investigated using Global Navigation Satellite System total electron content data together with Arase satellite observations. After the geomagnetic storm commencement, the trough minimum location moves equatorward from 60 to 48° in geomagnetic latitude within 4 hr. The trough minimum location identified from the Global Navigation Satellite System total electron content data is located near the footprint of an abrupt drop of electron density detected by the Arase High-Frequency Analyzer instrument. The longitudinal variation of the trough minimum location shows a significant variation with a scale of 1,000–2,500 km during both storm and quiet times. This phenomenon has not yet been reported by previous studies. After the onset of the storm recovery phase, the trough minimum location rapidly moves poleward back to the quiet time location within 4 hr.
- geomagnetic storm
- midlatitude ionospheric trough
- total electron content
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)