TLR22 occurs exclusively in aquatic animals and its role is unknown. Herein we show that the fugu (Takifugu rubripes) (fg)TLR3 and fgTLR22 link the IFN-inducing pathway via the fg Toll-IL-1R homology domain-containing adaptor protein 1(fgTICAM-1, or TRIF) adaptor in fish cells. fgTLR3 resides in endoplasmic reticulum and recognizes relatively short-sized dsRNA, whereas fgTLR22 recognizes long-sized dsRNA on the cell surface. On poly(I:C)-stimulated fish cells, both recruit fgTICAM-1, which in turn moves from the TLR to a cytoplasmic signalosome region. Thus, fgTICAM-1 acts as a shuttling platform for IFN signaling. When fish cells expressing fgTLR22 are exposed to dsRNA or aquatic dsRNA viruses, cells induce IFN responses to acquire resistance to virus infection. Thus, fish have a novel TICAM-1-coupling TLR that is distinct from the mammalian TLR3 in cellular localization, ligand selection, and tissue distribution. TLR22 may be a functional substitute of human cell-surface TLR3 and serve as a surveillant for infection with dsRNA virus to alert the immune system for antiviral protection in fish.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy