Many low symmetry and/or deformed phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been synthesized, separated, and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties elucidated in the last decade, mainly because of improvement in separation techniques of reaction mixtures and development of instruments and computers. In this overview, some advances in the chemistry of Pcs are surveyed. In recent years, many types of alkynyl Pcs, various isomers of low symmetry Pcs, severely sterically deformed Pcs, and chiral Pcs have been prepared and some of their properties are reproduced by quantum mechanical calculations, which have not been achieved previously. Also, in the field of Pc sandwich complexes, properties of hetero double- and triple-decker complexes can be compared, since many types of compounds are now available. Some hetrodinuclear planar dimers have also been reported in the last decade.
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