Synthesis, spectroscopic, and electrochemical studies of 1,2-naphthalene-ring-fused tetraazachlorins, -bacteriochlorins, and -isobacteriochlorins: The separation and characterization of structural isomers

Elena A. Makarova, Takamitsu Fukuda, Evgeny A. Luk'yanets, Nagao Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1,2-Naphthalene-ring-expanded tetraazachlorins (TACs), tetraazabacteriochlorins (TABCs), and tetraazaisobacteriochlorins (TAiBCs) have been synthesized. Procedures for the synthesis of the starting materials, that is, derivatives of 1,2-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid, have been reinvestigated and improved. Nine possible derivatives, including four, two, and three structural isomers of TACs, TABCs, and TAiBCs, respectively, were separated by using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the structure of each isomer was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with the NOE technique. The formation ratio of each isomer was rationalized in terms of the intramolecular steric repulsion effect, which was predicted by geometry optimizations at the DFT level. The derived compounds were characterized by using IR, electronic, and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, and by electrochemical methods. Frequency calculations at the DFT level correctly reproduced the experimental IR spectra and, in particular, distinguished between the three isomers of the TAiBCs. In the electronic absorption and MCD spectra of the TAC and TABC species, the Q-band splits into two intense components similarly to the 2,3-naphthalene-fused derivatives described in our preceding paper, although no significant spectral differences were observed from species to species. On the other hand, the spectra of the TAiBCs showed moderate differences depending on the structure of the isomer. The spectroscopic properties as well as the electrochemical behavior of these chlorins resemble those of the corresponding benzene-fused derivatives rather than the 2,3-naphthalene-fused derivatives. Molecular-orbital and configuration-interaction calculations within the framework of the ZINDO/S method were helpful in the discussions of the above observations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1250
Number of pages16
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Feb 4

Keywords

  • Density functional calculations
  • IR spectroscopy
  • Phthalocyanines
  • Porphyrinoids
  • UV/Vis spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry

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