Mono-, bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(1-azulenylethynyl)benzene and mono- and bis(1-azulenylethynyl)thiophene derivatives 5-10 have been prepared by Pd-catalyzed alkynylation of ethynyl arenes with 1-iodoazulene derivative or the 1-ethynylazulene derivative with tetraiodobenzene and iodothiophenes under Sonogashira-Hagihara conditions. Compounds 5-10 reacted with tetracyanoethylene in a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction to afford the corresponding 1,1,4,4,-tetracyano-2-(5-isopropyl-3-methoxycarbonyl-1-azulenyl)-3-butadienyl chromophores 12-16 in excellent yields, except for the reaction of the tetrakis(1-azulenylethynyl)benzene derivative. 1,1,4,4,-Tetracyano-2,3-bis(1- azulenyl)butadiene (17) was also prepared by the similar reaction of bis(1-azulenyl)acetylene (11) with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). The redox behavior of novel azulene derivatives 12-17 was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which revealed multistep electrochemical reduction properties. Moreover, a significant color change was observed by visible spectroscopy under electrochemical reduction conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry