Using uniform nanochannels of an aluminum anodic oxide film as a template, uniform and unique multiwalled carbon nanotubes can be synthesized with a selectivity of 100%. This technique allows one to precisely control the diameters and the length of nanotubes. Moreover, it is possible to chemically modify only the inner surface of carbon nanotubes and to prepare carbon nanotubes with a double coaxial structure of heteroatom-doped multiwalls. The test tube like carbon prepared by this technique was found to be dispersible in water without any post treatment. In addition to this one-dimensional approach, unique microporous carbon can be prepared by the template technique using zeolite Y. The resulting microporous carbons are characterized by their regular ordering, originating from the regularity of the parent zeolite. When the synthesis conditions were optimized, the specific surface area and the micropore volume of the zeolite-templated carbon reach more than 4000 m 2 g -1 and 1.8 cm 3 g -1, respectively. This review introduces such a template-mediated approach and highlights how useful and versatile the template technique is for the production of nano carbons.
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