Synthesis of uniform anatase TiO2 nanoparticles by gel-sol method: 1. Solution chemistry of Ti(OH)n(4-n)+ complexes

Tadao Sugimoto, Xingping Zhou, Atsushi Muramatsu

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188 Citations (Scopus)


The mole fractions of hydroxo complexes of titanium(IV) ion in an aqueous solution with 0.10 mol dm-3 NaClO4 at 25°C have been determined as a function of pH by a newly developed analytical procedure based on UV spectrophotometry, using a metastable homogeneous solution of 1.25 × 10-4 mol dm-3 in total concentration of Ti(IV). Also, the total concentration of the hydroxo complexes in equilibrium with Ti(OH)4 solid, or the solubility of Ti(OH)4 solid in an inhomogeneous system, has been obtained by ICP measurement for the solution phase. A combination of these data yielded the absolute concentration of each complex species in equilibrium with Ti(OH)4 solid. Finally, Ti(OH)3+ complex has been assigned to the precursor for the formation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles transformed from Ti(OH)4 gel from a comparison between the above equilibrium data and a kinetic study on the formation rate of the anatase TiO2 particles in the gel-sol system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Colloid And Interface Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1


  • Anatase
  • Gel-sol method
  • Hydroxo complex
  • Nanoparticles
  • Stability constants
  • Titania
  • Titanium hydroxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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