Synthesis of a lithium-encapsulated fullerenol and the effect of the internal lithium cation on its aggregation behavior

Hiroshi Ueno, Yuji Nakamura, Naohiko Ikuma, Ken Kokubo, Takumi Oshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


A lithium-encapsulated fullerenol Li@C60(OH)18, as an example of a polar solvent-soluble endohedral fullerene derivative, has been synthesized and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the particle size was determined using the induced grating (IG) method, and scanning probe microscopy. The encapsulated Li+ was clearly detected by 7Li NMR at very high field in the range -15 to -19 ppm, an intermediate lithium-encapsulated fullerenol was detected by MALDI-TOF-MS, and the molar ratio of lithium-encapsulated fullerenol to empty fullerenol was quantitatively determined to be 12:88 by ICP-AES. The solid-state ESR and particle size measurements using the IG method showed the characteristic anionic behavior with no external counter cations, in what can be called a "cation-encapsulated anion nanoparticle", revealing the drastic differences between its properties and those of empty C60(OH)16.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)558-564
Number of pages7
JournalNano Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Endohedral fullerene
  • cation-encapsulated anion nanoparticle
  • electrostatic interaction
  • fullerenol
  • lithium cation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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