Oral epithelium is the first barrier against oral bacteria in periodontal tissue. Oral epithelial cells constitutively express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD1/2, functional receptors which induce the production of antibacterial factors such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and β-defensin 2, but not pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8. In this study, we hypothesized that innate immune responses in the oral epithelium are enhanced in inflamed tissue. We found that NOD1 and NOD2 agonists, in combination with TLR agonists, synergistically induced production of PGRPs and of β-defensin 2 in human oral epithelial cells via NF-κB. In contrast, co-stimulation with NOD1/2 and TLR ligands had no effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). These findings indicate that, in innate immune responses to invading microbes, a combination of signaling through TLRs and NODs leads to the synergistic activation of antibacterial responses in the oral epithelium.
- Oral epithelial cells
- Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs)
- Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
- β-defensin 2
ASJC Scopus subject areas