Swimming behaviour of Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae in Lake Katanuma

Shigeto Takagi, Eisuke Kikuchi, Hideyuki Doi, Shuichi Shikano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


We conducted a seasonal survey of the swimming behaviour of Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae in volcanic Lake Katanuma from April 1998 to December 2001. Swimming C. acerbiphilus density was much higher than other chironomid species in lakes. All C. acerbiphilus larvae (1st through 4th instars) swam, but the earlier instars (especially the 1st) had the greatest densities and fluctuations. First instars were never found in the benthic population. This result indicates that the 1st-instar larvae are planktonic. Low water temperature (below about 10°C) resulted in the seasonal disappearance of swimming chironomid larvae. Chemical factors - oxygen depletion or presence of hydrogen sulfide - also restricted the distribution of swimming and benthic larvae. Larvae were distributed only in the oxygen-rich part of the lake bottom and swam only in the oxygen-rich layer of the water column. The density of older swimming C. acerbiphilus (3rd and 4th instars) tended to increase with increasing benthic larval densities. The chemical stress of oxygen depletion or presence of hydrogen sulfide during holomixis within and after the stratification period leads to conspicuous swimming behaviour of benthic C. acerbiphilus larvae. Almost all C. acerbiphilus larvae died on this occasion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-165
Number of pages13
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Chironomus acerbiphilus
  • Distribution
  • Seasonal change
  • Swimming behaviour
  • Volcanic lake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science


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