Background: The role of surgery in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm grade 3 (pNEN-G3) treatment remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the role of surgery for pNEN-G3, which has recently been reclassified as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor-G3 (pNET-G3) and pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma-G3 (pNEC-G3), with and without metastases, respectively. Methods: We analyzed a subgroup of patients from the Japanese pancreatic NEC study, a Japanese multicenter case-series study of pNEN-G3. Pathologists subclassified 67 patients as having pNET-G3 or pNEC-G3 based on morphological features. We compared the overall survival (OS) rates among patients who were grouped according to whether they had undergone tumor-targeted surgery for tumors without (SwoM) or with (SwM) metastases, or non-surgical procedures (NS). Results: Data from 21 patients with pNET-G3 (SwoM, n = 6; SwM, n = 5; NS, n = 10) and 46 patients with pNEC-G3 (SwoM, n = 8; SwM, n = 5; NS, n = 33) were analyzed. OS of patients with pNET-G3 was significantly longer after SwoM and SwM than with NS (p = 0.018 and p = 0.022). In contrast, OS did not significantly differ between either SwoM or SwM and NS (p = 0.093 and p = 0.489) among patients with pNEC-G3. Conclusion: The role of surgery should be considered separately for pNET-G3 and pNEC-G3. Although SwoM and SwM can be considered for pNET-G3, caution is advised before considering SwM and SwoM for pNEC-G3.
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