Surface modification and twinning behavior in gradient graphene-based TiC/Ti6Al4V composite

Yingchen Wang, Daixiu Wei, Liqiang Wang, Ling Zhang, Jia Liu, Yujin Tang, Yuanfei Fu, Weijie Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Gradient materials have significant potential to break strong plastic tradeoffs. Graphene with a strong affinity for titanium alloys has an influential application value for material modification. In this study, microstructure evolution and deformation behavior of graphene-based TiC/Ti6Al4V composites processed by friction stir processing (FSP) have been investigated. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) reveals uniform microstructure in the stir zone (SZ). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal distinct microstructures at different depths from the processed surface. The SZ includes nano/micro grains and TiC nanoplates. Twin structure exists in both α matrix and TiC. Stress-induced martensitic transformation is suppressed. As depth increases, TiC gradually disappears and the FSP-induced texture {-2116} < 2–1–11 > becomes slightly stronger. Moreover, there exists special crystallographic orientation relation: (1 1 1)TiC//(0001)Ti. In the base metal (BM), larger grains are observed, and dislocation structure becomes the dominant defect feature. Nanoindentation results show that hardness decreases first and then increases from the processed surface to the bulk metal. The distribution of hardness is the result of combined action of strengthening effect of TiC twins and deformation adaptation effect of α twins.

Original languageEnglish
Article number152495
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1


  • Friction stir process
  • Graphene
  • Surface modification
  • Twinning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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