The surface active sites on V2O5-SnO2 catalysts, i.e., redox sites and acid sites, were investigated by using two series of catalysts prepared from different starting materials: Sn(OH)2 and SnO. By use of the NO-NH3 rectangular pulse technique, it was found that the surface concentration of the redox sites increases with the addition of SnO2, depending strongly on the starting materials at lower SnO2 content. Based on XRD, IR, ESR, XPS, and SIMS data, the increase in the redox sites is attributed to the reduction of vanadium oxide caused by atomic mixing of vanadium and tin oxides. The difference between the two series of catalysts is attributed to the degree of mixing, which may result from the difference in chemical processes during the calcination of precursor of the catalysts. The strengths, surface concentrations, and types of acid sites were determined by using NH3 TPD and IR of adsorbed NH3 and pyridine. The properties of the acid sites on the V2O5-SnO2 catalysts appear to be due just to those of pure V2O5 and SnO2. Finally, the effects of various promoters, i.e., P2O5, WO3, MoO3, and SnO2, on the redox sites are summarized, and two important factors responsible for the increase in the concentration of the redox sites are discussed: (1) the mixing of vanadium and promoter ions at the surface rather than the formation of intermediate compounds or solid solution in the bulk and (2) a redox function of the promoter oxides.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Physical Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1990 Dec 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry