'Cap polyposis' is a rarely-encountered condition in which distinctive inflammatory polyps are located from the rectum to the distal descending colon. Microscopically, the polyps consist of elongated, tortuous, and distended crypts covered by a 'cap' of inflammatory granulation tissue. Although the pathogenesis is unknown, mucosal prolapse has been postulated to be an important etiological factor, given certain clinical and histological similarities. We describe two cases of cap polyposis with protein-losing enteropathy. One was treated successfully by avoidance of straining at defecation. Another resolved after double-barreled transverse colostomy. Both successful treatments support a causal link of polyposis to prolapse. (C) 2000 by Am. Coll. of Gastroenterology.
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