Subjective impressions of bowing actions and their appropriateness in specific social contexts

Hiroshi Shibata, Junichi Takahashi, Jiro Gyoba

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    The current study used video clips of bowing actions depicted by three-dimensional computer graphics. The bend angle (15° and 45°) and duration of the bent posture (0-4.5 seconds) were varied. In the first experiment, the participants rated their subjective impressions of the bowing actions. The bowing actions that were made at a 45° angle and held for more than 1 second were rated as courteous. Bowing motions held for shorter durations were rated as smooth. In the second experiment, the participants evaluated whether a bowing action was appropriate for a specific social context. The participants judged 15°-angle bowing of no / very short duration appropriate for greeting, 45°-angle bowing of no / short duration appropriate for gratitude, and 45°-angle bowing for about 2 seconds appropriate for an apology. The results of these two experiments are discussed in terms of how angle and duration influence the impressions and evaluations of the appropriateness of a bowing action.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)571-578
    Number of pages8
    JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Feb 1


    • Appropriateness evaluation
    • Bend angle
    • Bent posture duration
    • Bowing action
    • Subjective impression

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Psychology(all)


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