Subarachnoid small vein occlusion due to inflammatory fibrosis-a possible mechanism for cerebellar infarction in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis: A case report

Yoshiteru Shimoda, Satoru Ohtomo, Hiroaki Arai, Takashi Ohtoh, Teiji Tominaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) causes cerebral infarction, typically, lacunar infarction in the basal ganglia. However, massive cerebral infarction leading to death is rare and its pathophysiology is unclear. We report a case of CM causing massive cerebellar infarction, which led to cerebral herniation and death. Case presentation: A 56-year-old man who suffered from dizziness and gait disturbance for one month was admitted to our hospital and subsequently diagnosed with a cerebellar infarction. He had a past medical history of hepatitis type B virus infection and hepatic failure. Although the findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitated an arterial infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, an accompanying irregular peripheral edema was observed. The ischemic lesion progressed, subsequently exerting a mass effect and leading to impaired consciousness. External and internal decompression surgeries were performed. Cryptococcus neoformans was confirmed in the surgical specimen, and the patient was diagnosed with CM. In addition, venule congestion in the parenchyma was observed with extensive fibrosis and compressed veins in the subarachnoid space. The patient died 26days after admission. Autopsy revealed that pathological changes were localized in the cerebellum. Conclusion:C. neoformans can induce extensive fibrosis of the subarachnoid space, which may compress small veins mechanically inducing venule congestion and massive cerebral infarction. In such cases, the clinical course can be severe and even rapidly fatal. An atypical pattern of infarction on MRI should alert clinicians to the possibility of C. neoformans infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number157
JournalBMC Neurology
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 9

Keywords

  • Autopsy
  • Cryptococcal infection
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Vein occlusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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