Anti-inflammatory effects of liver X receptor (LXR) ligands are thought to be largely due to LXR-mediated transrepression, whereas side effects are caused by activation of LXR-responsive gene expression (transactivation). Therefore, selective LXR modulators that preferentially exhibit transrepression activity should exhibit anti-inflammatory properties with fewer side effects. Here, we synthesized a series of styrylphenylphthalimide analogues and evaluated their structure-activity relationships focusing on LXRs-transactivating-agonistic/antagonistic activities and transrepressional activity. Among the compounds examined, 17l showed potent LXR-transrepressional activity with high selectivity over transactivating activity and did not show characteristic side effects of LXR-transactivating agonists in cells. This representative compound, 17l, was confirmed to have LXR-dependent transrepressional activity and to bind directly to LXRβ. Compound 17l should be useful not only as a chemical tool for studying the biological functions of LXRs transrepression but also as a candidate for a safer agent to treat inflammatory diseases.
- Liver X receptor
- inhibition of interleukin-6 level
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery
- Organic Chemistry