Study on information leakage of input key due to frequency fluctuation of RC oscillator in keyboard

Masahiro Kinugawa, Yu Ichi Hayashi, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Recently, it has been shown that electromagnetic radiation from electrical devices leaks internal information. Some investigations have shown that information leaks through the clock frequency and higher harmonic waves. Thus, previous studies have focused on the information leakage from information processing circuits. However, there has been little discussion about information leaks from peripheral circuits. In this paper, we focus on the oscillation frequency of the integrated RC oscillators. In this paper, we use a keyboard as a device that includes a RC oscillator. Then experiments observed information leaks caused by key inputs. Our experiments show that frequency fluctuations cause information leakages and clarify what information can be acquired from the fluctuation. Then, we investigate the possibility of information leaking from peripheral circuits through modulated signals which are radiated by the peripheral circuits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2633-2638
Number of pages6
JournalIEICE Transactions on Communications
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct


  • EM information leakage
  • Information security
  • Integrated oscillator
  • RC oscillator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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