Lymph node (LN) metastasis is thought to account for 20-30% of deaths from head and neck cancer. The lymphatic drug delivery system (LDDS) is a new technology that enables the injection of drugs into a sentinel LN (SLN) during the early stage of tumor metastasis to treat the SLN and secondary metastatic LNs. However, the optimal physicochemical properties of the solvent used to carry the drug have not been determined. Here, we show that the osmotic pressure and viscosity of the solvent influenced the antitumor effect of cisplatin (CDDP) in a mouse model of LN metastasis. Tumor cells were inoculated into the proper axillary LN (PALN), and the LDDS was used to inject CDDP solution into the subiliac LN (SiLN) to treat the tumor cells in the downstream PALN. CDDP dissolved in saline had no therapeutic effects in the PALN after it was injected into the SiLN using the LDDS or into the tail vein (as a control). However, CDDP solution with an osmotic pressure of ~ 1,900 kPa and a viscosity of ~ 12 mPa⋅s suppressed tumor growth in the PALN after it was injected into the SiLN using the LDDS. The high osmotic pressure dilated the lymphatic vessels and sinuses to enhance drug flow in the PALN, and the high viscosity increased the retention of CDDP in the PALN. Our results demonstrate that optimizing the osmotic pressure and viscosity of the solvent can enhance the effects of CDDP, and possibly other anticancer drugs, after administration using the LDDS.
- lymph node metastasis
- lymphatic drug delivery system
- osmotic pressure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research