Vesicle amine transport protein-1 (VAT-1) has been implicated in the regulation of vesicular transport, mitochondrial fusion, phospholipid transport and cell migration, and is a potential target of anticancer drugs. Little is known about the molecular function of VAT-1. The amino acid sequence indicates that VAT-1 belongs to the quinone oxidoreductase subfamily, suggesting that VAT-1 may possess enzymatic activity in unknown redox processes. To clarify the molecular function of VAT-1, we determined the three-dimensional structure of human VAT-1 in the free state at 2.3 Å resolution and found that VAT-1 forms a dimer with the conserved NADPH-binding cleft on each protomer. We also determined the structure of VAT-1 in the NADP-bound state at 2.6 Å resolution and found that NADP binds the binding cleft to create a putative active site with the nicotine ring. Substrate screening suggested that VAT-1 possesses oxidoreductase activity against quinones such as 1,2-naphthoquinone and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.
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