Rapid percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) reduces acute mortality, but there is an urgent need for treatment of left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after AMI to improve the prognosis. The myocardium itself does not have a high regenerative capacity, and it is important to minimize the loss of cardiomyocytes and maintain the cardiac function after AMI. To overcome these problems, attention has been focused on myocardial regeneration therapy using cells derived from bone marrow. The clinical use of bone marrow stem cells is considered to have low safety concerns based on the experience of using bone marrow transplantation for blood diseases in clinical practice. It has been reported that bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) and mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) differentiate into cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and they have been considered a promising source for stem cell therapy. To prevent heart failure after human AMI, studies have been conducted to regenerate myocardial tissue by transplanting bone marrow stem cells, such as BM-MSCs and BM-MNCs. Therapies using those cells have been administered to animal models of AMI, and were effective to some extent, but the effect in clinical trials was limited. Recently, it was reported that multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells (Muse cells), which are endogenous pluripotent stem cells obtainable from various tissues including the bone marrow, more markedly reduced the myocardial infarct size and improved the cardiac function via regeneration of cardiomyocytes and vessels and paracrine effects compared with BM-MSCs. Here, we describe stem cell therapies using conventional BM-MNCs and BM-MSCs, and Muse cells which have potential for clinical use for the treatment of AMI.
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
- Bone marrow mononuclear cells
- Cardiac function
- Muse cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine