The purposes of this paper are to analyze residential energy consumption in winter and to find out its influence factors in some cities in China. The investigated residences were located in six cities of five architecture thermotechnical design zones. Questionnaire surveys revealed building characteristics, the possession and utilization of domestic energy use equipment, household characteristics and thermal environment in winter. Winter residential energy consumption characteristics in these cities are analyzed contrastively. Quantification Theory I is used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative influence factors of winter energy consumption. When district space heating is not included in the total amount in Urumqi and Xi'an, It is found that the household total energy use amount in Hongkong is largest, and the values in Chongqing and Changsha are smaller, while the residences in Kunming, Harbin and Urumqi consume the lowest energy; while the total household energy use in Urumqi and Xi'an reaches 3.9-10.7 times and 4.8-13.3 times as large as the values in other cities respectively when the district heating is included in the total use. The analyses on influence factor indicate that each city has its own characteristics in the influence factors on winter energy use: energy efficiency of space heaters and its usage frequency also work on the winter energy use distinctly in Chongqing of hot summer and cold winter zone, while both architecture characteristics and space heaters do little action on winter energy use in Hongkong.