Stabilization of Size-Controlled BaTiO3Nanocubes via Precise Solvothermal Crystal Growth and Their Anomalous Surface Compositional Reconstruction

Kouichi Nakashima, Kaito Onagi, Yoshio Kobayashi, Toru Ishigaki, Yoshihisa Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Yoneda, Shu Yin, Masato Kakihana, Tohru Sekino

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Crystal growth of barium titanate (BaTiO3) using a wet chemical reaction was investigated at various temperatures. BaTiO3 nanoparticles were obtained at an energy-efficient temperature of 80 °C. However, BaTiO3 nanocubes with a preferred size and shape could be synthesized using a solvothermal method at 200 °C via a reaction involving titanium tetraisopropoxide [(CH3)2CHO]4Ti for nucleation and fine titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles for crystal growth. The BaTiO3 nanocubes showed a high degree of dispersion without the use of dispersants or surfactants. The morphology of BaTiO3 was found to depend on the reaction medium. The size of the BaTiO3 particles obtained using water as the reaction medium was the largest among the particles synthesized using various reaction media. In the case of alcohol reaction media, the BaTiO3 particle size increased in the order methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. Furthermore, BaTiO3 powder obtained using alcohol reaction media resulted in cubic shapes as opposed to the round shapes obtained when water was used as the medium. We found that the optimal condition for the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanocubes involved the use of 1-butanol as the reaction medium, resulting in an average particle size of 52 nm, which is the average distance of the cubes measured diagonally from corner to corner, and gives an average side length of 37 nm, and a tetragonal crystal system as evidenced by the powder X-ray diffraction pattern obtained using high-energy synchrotron X-rays. The origin of the spontaneous polarization of the BaTiO3 tetragonal crystal structure was clarified by a pair distribution function analysis. In addition, surface reconstruction of BaTiO3 nanocubes led to an outermost surface comprising two layers of Ti columns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9410-9425
Number of pages16
JournalACS Omega
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 13

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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