Spatial formation of international non-governmental organizations

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This paper clarifies the spatial formation of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) based on globalization characterized by the complicated reorganization of space. It also shows the strategies and factors upon which this formation is based. The findings can be summarized as follows. The spatial organization of an INGO consists of an international stronghold that functions as a coordinating organization, autonomous local strongholds, and the relations between strongholds whose characteristics resemble network organizations. The characteristics of spatial organization are a consequence of such strategies on a multilayered geographical scale as the expansion of spatial organizations, establishment and consolidation of the international stronghold, implementation of autonomous strategies in local strongholds, and employment of regional networks as medium institutions. Practicability and legitimacy are considered factors that form such spatial organizations, and the categories "local practicability," "global practicability," "local legitimacy," and "global legitimacy" were derived from relating them to geographical scales. They are related interdependently, and local practicability and legitimacy are fundamental to the global constitution. Therefore, the formation of spatial organizations of INGOs is regarded as a movement that executes simultaneous reactions to complicated spatial reorganization in globalization, gaining practicability, legitimacy, and influence. Although the spatial organization of an INGO does not necess arily have complete territoriality, it is clear that the formation of local strongholds within national territory have contributed to the acquisition of local and global practicability and legitimacy through the above strategies. In this connection, a system of world cities must be recognized as a network organized and based on national territory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-112
Number of pages26
JournalGeographical Review of Japan
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Globalization
  • International non-governmental organizations (INGOs)
  • Network organization
  • Spatial organization
  • System of world cities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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