The spallation and fragmentation reactions of Xe136 induced by proton, deuteron, and carbon targets at 168 MeV/nucleon were studied at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory via the inverse kinematics technique. A wide range of isotopic distributions of the reaction cross sections has been obtained and systematically analyzed by using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) including dynamical and intranuclear cascade processes plus evaporation process, the semi-empirical parametrization for residue cross sections in spallation reactions (SPACS) and empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections (EPAX), and the deuteron-induced reaction analysis code system (DEURACS) incorporating the deuteron breakup effect. The carbon target has exhibited strong potential to produce light-mass isotopes far away from the projectile, in comparison to proton and deuteron targets. This may be attributed to the possible higher excitation energies of the prefragment induced by heavier target. It is demonstrated that the deuteron target has advantages to produce isotopic chains very close to the projectile and also the neutron-rich nuclei in other isotopic chains far away from the projectile, due basically to its structure property and the effect of the breakup neutron in the peripheral collision processes. The proton target has the advantage of being able to produce isotopes produced via charge-pickup reactions in comparison to other targets. The prediction powers of various calculation codes are examined with respective to the experimental isotopic distributions. The target and energy dependences of the produced mass distributions are also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics